Arithmetic operators are used to combine numbers, numeric variables, numeric fields and numeric functions to get another number.

The arithmetic operators are addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), integer division (\), modulus (Mod), negation (-) and exponentiation (^).

**Examples**

'Outstanding preferred stock as a percent of
'common stock
formula = ({Financials.Preferred Stock} / _
{Financials.Common Stock}) * 100
'The square root of 9, Sqr(9), is 3.
'The formula returns 17.
formula = 7 + 2 * 3 - 2 + Sqr(6 + 3) * Len("up")

## Order of Precedence

In general, the program evaluates expressions in the following order:

- from left to right
- follows the rules of precedence from basic math

The arithmetic operators in Crystal Reports have the same order of precedence as in Visual Basic. Here is the list, from highest precedence to lowest:

- Exponentiation (^)
- Negation (-)
- Multiplication and division (*, /)
- Integer Division (\)
- Modulus (Mod)
- Addition and subtraction (+, -)

**Example**

Multiplication and division are performed first from left to right. Then addition and subtraction are performed. For example, 5 + 10 * 3 = 5 + 30 = 35.

You can change this order of precedence by using parentheses. For example, (5 + 10) * 3 = 15 * 3 = 45. If you are unsure of the order of precedence, it is a good idea to clarify your intentions with parentheses.

#### See Also

Operators (Basic Syntax) | Performing Report Calculations